An English Westerners' Society Publication


Making Pacts With Old Enemies


Brian O'Keefe



This book by Brian O'Keefe covers the lead up to the 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty that brought together a number of the Northern and Southern Plains tribes together despite their long time enmity towards each other. The fact that so many tribes would gather for the conference was down to the efforts of men like Thomas 'Broken-Hand' Fitzpatrick, a government agent, and Father Pierre 'Black Robe' DeSmet. The Crows were one of the last of the tribes to gather and they staged a grand entrance, their late arrival, from a white man's perspective heralded the conference and subsequent treaty a success. Although official records record this as the  Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 it was referred to by white's as "The Fitzpatrick Treaty" or "Horse Creek Treaty". To the Indians it went by other names like the "Great Smoke" and "The Treaty of the Long Meadows". As with all US Government treaties it would not last as they were never able to deliver on promises made, and although for a few years inter-tribal warfare was reduced it would begin again as the tribes fought to protect their traditional hunting grounds from each other and white encroachment.

English Westerners' Society Brand Book Volume 44 No. 2 & 3

Price 6.40 ($13.00) to Subscribing Members of EWS includes postage and packaging.

Price 6.40 ($13.00) to Non Subscribing Members through EWS excludes postage and packaging.

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